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Area, Production & Productivity

India

            The year-wise Area, Production & Yield of Wheat for the country as a whole is given in the Annexure- I.  The normal   Area, Production & Yield of Wheat in different States is presented in Annexure - II.

State - wise

The percent share of different States in area and production and their Rank under Wheat crop is given as under:-

S
No

State

% Share of  Normal  Area

 

S
No.

State

% Share of  Normal Production

1

Uttar Pradesh

33.80

 

1

Uttar Pradesh

33.66

2

Madhya Pradesh

14.77

 

2

Punjab

21.22

3

Punjab

12.66

 

3

Haryana

12.88

4

Rajasthan

9.65

 

4

Madhya Pradesh

9.58

5

Haryana

8.56

 

5

Rajasthan

8.86

6

Bihar

7.79

 

6

Bihar

6.18

7

Maharashtra

3.52

 

7

Maharashtra

1.71

8

Gujarat

1.84

 

8

Gujarat

1.56

9

Uttaranchal

1.50

 

9

West Bengal

1.24

10

West Bengal

1.45

 

10

Uttaranchal

1.04

11

Himachal Pradesh

1.41

 

11

Himachal Pradesh

0.84

12

Karnataka

0.99

 

12

Jammu & Kashmir

0.44

13

Jammu & Kashmir

0.96

 

13

Karnataka

0.31

14

Chhattisgarh

0.31

 

14

Jharkhand

0.15

15

Assam

0.29

 

15

Assam

0.13

16

Jharkhand

0.24

 

16

Chhattisgarh

0.11

17

Delhi

0.12

 

17

Delhi

0.04

18

Andhra Pradesh

0.04

 

18

Andhra Pradesh

0.01

19

Sikkim

0.03

 

19

Arunachal Pradesh

0.01

20

Meghalaya

0.02

 

20

Meghalaya

0.01

21

Orissa

0.02

 

21

Nagaland

0.01

22

Arunachal Pradesh

0.01

 

22

Orissa

0.01

23

Nagaland

0.01

 

23

Sikkim

0.01

 

All India

100.00

 

 

All India

100.00

Note:       ‘Normal’ is worked out as  average of  figures of Area & Production  during 1998-99, 1999-2000 & 2000-2001.

It would be seen from above table that in terms of area, the state of Uttar Pradesh stands first followed by Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttarnchal, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka and Jammu & Kashmir. In terms of production, U.P. again occupies first place followed by Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal,  Uttarnchal, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Karnataka. The contribution of these states in the production is about 99.5% (Fig.-1). The contribution of other States is minimal. As regards to the productivity, Punjab stands first (4531 Kg/ha.) followed by Haryana (4066 Kg/ha.), Uttar Pradesh (2691 Kg./ha.), Rajasthan (2481 Kg/ha.), West Bengal (2321 Kg/ha.), Gujarat (2294 Kg/ha.),  Bihar (2143 Kg/ha.), Uttarnchal (1873 Kg/ha.),  Madhya Pradesh (1753 Kg/ha.), Himachal Pradesh (1609 Kg/ha.), Maharashtra (1310 Kg/ha.),  Jammu & Kashmir (1239 Kg/ha.) and Karnataka (855 Kg/ha.). 

           The State-wise area, production and productivity of Wheat since 1966-67 to 2000 – 2001 is given in Annexure – III.

           The State-wise and district-wise area, production and productivity is given in Annexure – IV.

Plan-wise Area, Production and Productivity of Wheat in India

The area, production and productivity of Wheat in respect of different Five Year/ Annual Plans are given in the following table:-

Plan Period

Area in lakh ha.

Production in lakh Tonnes

Productivity in Kgs./ha.

First Plan (1951-56)

107.22

79.00

737

Second Plan (1956-61)

128.36

97.34

758

Third Plan (1961-66)

133.30

110.72

831

Annual Plans (1966-69

145.96

155.26

1064

Forth  Plan (1969-74)

184.10

233.70

1069

Fifth Plan (1974-79)

206.96

298.42

1442

Annual Plan (1979-80)

221.70

318.30

1436

Sixth Plan (1980-85)

232.44

412.20

1773

Seventh  Plan (1985-90)

233.60

483.80

2071

Annual Plans (1990-92)

237.15

554.15

2338

Eighth Plan (1992-97)

252.68

628.54

2487

Ninth Plan (1997-2002)

264.92

708.48

2674

Note:- The figures are taken as average of the different plan periods.

It is observed from the above table that there has been consistent increase in the area, production and productivity of Wheat from I Plan to IX Plan  (Fig. 2-4). The percent increase in area, production and productivity has been in order of 204.76, 621.85 and 301.46, respectively. The area under Wheat has been more than doubled, whereas the production has gone six times and the productivity increase has been three times since first Plan. Though since I Plan, there has been increase in area, production and productivity, but when year-wise data of IX Plan is analyzed, it would be observed that the area under Wheat is almost stagnant and production and productivity are also fluctuating. It is mainly because of most of the Wheat area is followed after Rice. In this crop rotation, a number of difficulties are being faced and efforts are being made to persuade the farmers to go for diversified crops in place of Rice & Wheat, so that fertility level of soils are maintained.

World Scenario

The country-wise normal area, production and productivity of Wheat is presented in the Annexure– V. The total area of   Wheat in the world is around 215.26 million ha. with a production of 584.76 million tonnes. The normal world productivity is 2717 Kg./ha. The major Wheat producing countries are China, India, USA, France, Russia, Canada, Australia, Pakistan, Turkey, UK, Argentina, Iran and Italy. These countries contribute about 76% of the total world Wheat production.

The following table indicates the % share of major Wheat growing countries in area and production of the total world’s area & production:-

S. N.

Country

% Share of  Normal World Area

 

S. N.

Country

% Share of  Normal World Production

1.      

China

13.19

 

1.      

China

18.41

2.      

India

12.5

 

2.      

India

12.05

3.      

USA

10.38

 

3.      

USA

10.97

4.      

Russian Fed.

9.21

 

4.      

France

6.52

5.      

Australia

5.56

 

5.      

Russian Fed.

5.36

6.      

Canada

4.95

 

6.      

Canada

4.43

7.      

Turkey

4.13

 

7.      

Australia

3.76

8.      

Pakistan

3.87

 

8.      

Pakistan

3.29

9.      

Argentina

2.71

 

9.      

Turkey

3.08

10.   

Iran

2.54

 

10.   

United Kingdom

2.68

11.   

France

2.42

 

11.   

Argentina

2.51

12.   

Italy

1.08

 

12.   

Iran

1.57

13.   

Spain

1.04

 

13.   

Italy

1.34

14.   

United Kingdom

0.92

 

14.   

Egypt

1.08

15.   

Romania

0.87

 

15.   

Spain

1.02

16.   

Syria

0.78

 

16.   

Romania

0.81

17.   

Egypt

0.47

 

17.   

Syria

0.56

18.   

Bangladesh

0.39

 

18.   

Bangladesh

0.32

19.   

Others (Total)

23.00

 

19.   

Others (Total)

20.24

20.   

World

100.00

 

20.   

World

100.00

Note:      ‘Normal’ is worked out as simple average of  figures of Area & Production  during 1998, 1999 &  2000.

The above table indicates that India stands 2nd both in area and production next to China in the world. The India’s share in world Wheat area is about 12.5%, whereas it occupies 12 % share in the total world Wheat production (Fig.- 5).